Highways May Be Especially Dangerous for Breathing

Being in heavy traffic, or living near a road, may be even more dangerous than being in other places in a community. Growing evidence shows that the vehicle emissions coming directly from those highways may be higher than in the community as a whole, increasing the risk of harm to people who live or work near busy roads.

The number of people living “next to a busy road” may include 30 to 45 percent of the population in North America, according to the most recent review of the evidence. In January 2010, the Health Effects Institute published a major review of the evidence by a panel of expert scientists. The panel looked at over 700 studies from around the world, examining the health effects. They concluded that traffic pollution causes asthma attacks in children, and may cause a wide range of other effects including: the onset of childhood asthma, impaired lung function, premature death and death from cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular morbidity. The area most affected, they concluded, was roughly 0.2 mile to 0.3 mile (300 to 500 meters) from the highway.103

Children and teenagers are among the most vulnerable—though not the only ones at risk. A Danish study found that long-term exposure to traffic air pollution may increase the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They found that those most at risk were people who already had asthma or diabetes.104 Studies have found increased risk of premature death from living near a major highway or an urban road.105 Another study found an increase in risk of heart attacks from being in traffic, whether driving or taking public transportation.106 Urban women in a Boston study experienced decreased lung function associated with traffic-related pollution.107

FACT: When inhaled, ozone irritates the lungs, resulting in something like a bad sunburn within the lungs.

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