Footnotes

  1. Mustafé H, Jabre P, Caussin C, Murad MH, Escolano S, Tafflet M, Périer M-C, Marijon E, Vernewrey D, Empana J-P, Jouven X. Main Air Pollution and Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review an Meta-Analysis. JAMA 2012; 307(7) 713-721.
  2. Wellenius GA, Burger MR, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Suh HH, Koutrakis P, Schlaug G, Gold DR, Mittleman MA. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Archives of Internal Medicine  2012; 172(3):229-234.
  3. Earthjustice, American Lung Association and Clean Air Task Force. Sick of Soot: How EPA Can Save Lives by Cleaning Up Fine Particle Pollution. November 2011, Available at http://www.earthjustice.org/soot. Accessed February 28, 2012. McCubbin Donald. Health Benefits of Alternative PM 2.5 Standards. July 2011. Available at http://earthjustice.org/documents/report/pdf/health-benefits-of-alternative-pm-2-5-standards. Accessed Februarty 28, 2012.
  4. Pope CA, Ezzati M, Dockery DW. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in the United States. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:376-86.
  5. Baja ES, Schwartz JD, Wellenius GA, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Vokonas PS, Suh HH. Traffic-related air pollution and QT interval: modification by diabetes, obesity, and oxidative stress gene polymorphisms in the normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(6):840-6; Jacobs L, Emmerechts J, Mathieu C, Hoylaerts MF, Fierens F, Hoet PH, Nemery B, Nawrot TS. Air pollution related prothrombotic changes in persons with diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118(2):191-196; Stafoggia M, Forastiere F, Faustini A, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Cadum E, Cernigliaro A, Mallone S, Pandolfi P, Serinelli M, Tessari R, Vigotti MA, Perucci CA; EpiAir Group. Susceptibility factors to ozone-related mortality: a population-based case-crossover analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182(3):376-84; Sun Q, Yue P, Deiuliis JA, Lumeng CN, Kampfrath T, Mikolaj MB, Cai Y, Ostrowski MC, Lu B, Parthasarathy S, Brook RD, Moffatt-Bruce SD, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S. Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Circulation 2009; 119(4):538-46.
  6. Sun et al., 2009.
  7. Spencer-Hwang R, Knutsen SF, Soret S, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Oda K, Shavlik D, Jaipaul N. Ambient Air Pollutants and Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease Among Kidney Transplant Recipients. American Journal of Kidney Disease 2011; 58(4): 608-616.
  8. Crouse DL, Peters PA, van Donkelaar A, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ, Brion O, Khan S, Atari DO, Jerrett M, Pope III CA, Brauer M, Brook JR, Martin RV, Stieb D, Burnett RT. Risk of Non-accidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in Relation to Longterm Exposure to Low Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter: A Canadian National-level Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 2012. Available In-Press online 7 February 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104049.
  9. Dales R, Chen L, Frescura AM, Liu L, Villeneuve PJ. Acute effects of outdoor air pollution on forced expiratory volume in 1 s: a panel study of schoolchildren with asthma. Eur Respir J 2009; 34:316-323.
  10. Medina-Ramon M, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of ozone and PM10 on hospital admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a national multicity study. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163:579-588.
  11. Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure, National Research Council. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution, 2008. Available at www.nap.edu/catalog/12198.html.
  12. Bell ML, Dominici F. Effect Modification by Community Characteristics on the Short-term Effects of Ozone Exposure and Mortality in 98 US Communities. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167:986-997.
  13. Turner MC, Krewski D, Pope III CA, Chen Y, Gapstur SM, Thun MJ. Long-Term Ambient Fire Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never Smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 184(12):1374-1381.
  14. Schwartz J, Park SK, O’Neill MS, Vokonas PS, Sparrow D, Weiss S, Kelsey K. Glutathione-S-transferase M1, obesity, statins, and autonomic effects of particles: gene-by-drug-by-environment interaction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2005; 172:1529-1533; Dubowsky SD, Sub H, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Gold DR. Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension may enhance associations between air pollution and markers of systemic inflammation. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114:992-998; Schneider A, Neas L, Herbst M, Case M, Williams R, Cascio W, Hinderliter A, Holguin F, Buse J, Dungan K. Endothelial dysfunction: associations with exposure to ambient fine particles in diabetic individuals. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116:1666-1674.
  15. Gehring U, Wijga AH, Brauer M, Fishcher P, de Jongste JC, Kerkhof M, Oldenwening M, Smit HA, and Brunekreef B. Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181:596-603; McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F, Gaudeman J, Avol E, Künzli N, Yao L, Peters J, and Berhane K. Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118(7):1021-1026; Health Effects Institute Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Health Effects Institute: Boston, 2010. Available at www.healtheffects.org.
  16. Künzli N, Bridevaux P-O, Liu S, Garcia-Esteban R, Schindler G, Gerbase M, Sunyer J, Keidel D, Rochat T. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Correlates with Adult-Onset Asthma among Never-Smokers. Thorax 2009; 64(8):664-70
  17. Pearson JF, Bachireddy C, Shyamprasad S, Goldfine AB, Brownstein JS. Association between fine particulate matter and diabetes prevalence in the U.S. ; Krämer U, Herder C, Sugiri D, Strassburger K, Schikowski T, Ranft U, Rathmann W. Traffic-related air pollution and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the SALIA cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118(9):a399.
  18. Andersen ZJ, Hvidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Loft S, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, and Raaschou-Nielsen O. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution: A Cohort Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011: 183:455-461.
  19. Tonne C, Melly S, Mittleman M, Coull B, Goldberg R, Schwartz J. A Case-Control Analysis of Exposure to Traffic and Acute Myocardial Infarction. Environ Health Perspect 2007; 115:53-57; Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrus J, Brokow I, Koletzko S, Krämer U, Behrendt H, Herbarth O, von Berg A, Bauer CP, Wichmaqnn H-E, Heinrich J, for the GINI Study Group and the LISA Study Group. Atopic Diseases, Allergic Sensitization, and Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution in Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177:1331-1337; Brauer MLencar C, Tambruic L, Koehoorn M, Demers P, Karr C. A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Impacts on Birth Outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 2008 116:680-686; de Medeiros AP, Gouveia N, Machado RP, de Souza MR, Alencar GP, Novaes HM, de Almeida MF. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Mortality: A Case-Control Study. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117:127-132.
  20. Dales et al., 2009.
  21. U.S. EPA. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2006. EPA/600/R-05/004aF-cF.
  22. Thaller EI, Petronell SA, Hochman D, Howard S, Chhikara RS, Brooks EG. Moderate Increases in Ambient PM 2.5 and Ozone Are Associated With Lung Function Decreases in Beach Lifeguards. J Occp Environ Med 2008; 50:202-211.
  23. Bell ML, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. Ozone and short-term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. JAMA 2004; 292:2372-2378.
  24. Gryparis A, Forsberg B, Katsouyanni K, et al. Acute Effects of Ozone on Mortality from the “Air Pollution and Health: a European approach” project. Am J Respir Crit Care Med  2004; 170: 1080-1087.
  25. Bell ML, Dominici F, and Samet JM. A Meta-Analysis of Time-Series Studies of Ozone and Mortality with Comparison to the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Epidemiology 2005; 16:436-445. Levy JI, Chermerynski SM, Sarnat JA. Ozone Exposure and Mortality: an empiric Bayes metaregression analysis. Epidemiology 2005; 16:458-468. Ito K, De Leon SF, Lippmann M. Associations Between Ozone and Daily Mortality: analysis and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 2005; 16:446-429.
  26. Bates DV. Ambient Ozone and Mortality. Epidemiology 2005; 16:427-429.
  27. National Research Council, 2008.
  28. Stafoggia et al., 2010.
  29. Gent JF, Triche EW, Holford TR, Belanger K, Bracken MB, Beckett WS, Leaderer BP. Association of Low-Level Ozone and Fine Particles with Respiratory Symptoms in Children with Asthma. JAMA 2003; 290:1859-1867; Desqueyroux H, Pujet JC, Prosper M, Squinazi F, Momas I. Short-Term Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution on Respiratory Health of Adults Suffering from Moderate to Severe Asthma. Environ Res 2002; 89:29-37; Burnett RT, Brook JR, Yung WT, Dales RE, Krewski D. Association between Ozone and Hospitalization for Respiratory Diseases in 16 Canadian Cities. Environ Res 1997; 72:24-31; Medina-Ramón M, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The Effect of Ozone and PM10 on Hospital Admissions for Pneumonia and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: a national multicity study. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163(6):579-588.
  30. Chan C-C, Wu T-H. Effects of Ambient Ozone Exposure on Mail Carriers’ Peak Expiratory Flow Rates. Environ Health Perspec 2005; 113:735-738. Tager IB, Balmes J, Lurmann F, Ngo L, Alcorn S, and Küenzli N. Chronic Exposure to Ambient Ozone and Lung Function in Young Adults. Epidemiology 2005; 16:751-759.
  31. Rich DQ, Mittleman MA, Link MS, Schwartz J, Luttmann-Gibson H, Catalano PJ, Speizer FE, Gold DR, Dockery DW. Increased Risk of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Episodes Associated with Acute Increases in Ambient Air Pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114:120-123.
  32. Ruidavets J-B, Cournot M, Cassadou S, Giroux M, Meybeck M, Ferrières J. Ozone Air Pollution is Associated with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Circulation 2005; 111:563-569.
  33. Jerrett M, Burnett RT, Pope CA 3rd, Ito K, Thurston G, Krewski D, Shi Y, Calle E, Thun M. Long-term ozone exposure and mortality. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1085-1095.
  34. Lin S, Liu X, Le LH, and Hwang S-A. Chronic exposure to ambient ozone and asthma hospital admissions among children. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116:1725-1730.
  35. Islam T, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Peters JM, and Gilliland F, Ozone, oxidant defense genes, and risk of asthma during adolescence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 177(4):388-395.
  36. Parker JD, Akinbami LJ, Woodruff TJ. Air Pollution and Childhood Respiratory Allergies in the United States. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117:140-147.
  37. Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Mortality displacement in the association of ozone with mortality: an analysis of 48 cities in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008a; 177:184-189.
  38. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/139F, 2009. Available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=216546#Download.
  39. U.S. EPA. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, October 2004. Available at http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=87903.
  40. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment, 2009.
  41. Miller, 2007. O’Neill MS, Veves A, Zanobetti A, Sarnat JA, Gold DR, Economides PA, Horton ES, Schwartz J. Diabetes Enhances Vulnerability to Particulate Air Pollution-Associated Impairment in Vascular Reactivity and Endothelial Function. Circulation 2005; 111:2913-2920. Zanobetti A, and Schwartz J. Are Diabetics More Susceptible to the Health Effects of Airborne Particles? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 831-833. National Research Council. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV. Continuing Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
  42. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment, 2009.
  43. Pearson et al., 2010.
  44. Krämer et al., 2010.
  45. Puett RC, Hart JE, Schwartz J, Hu FB, Liese AD, Laden F. Are Particulate Matter Exposures Associated with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes? Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119:384-389.
  46. Pope CA III, Dockery DW. Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect. J Air Waste Mange Assoc 2006; 56:709-742.
  47. Pope, Ezzati, Dockery, 2009.
  48. Schwartz J, Coull B, Laden F, Ryan L. The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116:64-69.
  49. Pope, Dockery, 2006.
  50. Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, Samoli E, Gryparis A, Tuoloumi G, Peacock J, Anderson RH, Le Tertre A, Bobros J, Celko M, Goren A, Forsberg B, Michelozzi P, Rabczenko D, Perez Hoyos S, Wichmann HE, Katsouyanni K. The Temporal Pattern of Respiratory and Heart Disease Mortality in Response to Air Pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111:1188-1193. Dominici F, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM. Airborne Particulate Matter and Mortality: Timescale Effects in Four US Cities. Am J Epidemiol 2003; 157:1055-1065.
  51. Franklin M, Zeka A, Schwartz J. Association between PM 2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities. J Expo Sci Envin Epidemiol 2007; 17:279-287.
  52. Dominici F, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM. On the Use of Generalized Additive Models in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156:193-203.
  53. Hong Y-C, Lee J-T, Kim H, Ha E-H, Schwartz J, Christiani DC. Effects of Air Pollutants on Acute Stroke Mortality. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110:187-191.
  54. Tsai SS, Goggins WB, Chiu HF, Yang CY. Evidence for an Association Between Air Pollution and Daily Stroke Admissions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Stroke 2003; 34: 2612-6.
  55. Wellenius GA, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA. Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke Among Medicare Beneficiaries. Stroke 2005; 36:2549-2553.
  56. Pope and Dockery, 2006.
  57. D’Ippoliti D, Forastiere F, Ancona C, Agabity N, Fusco D, Michelozzi P, Perucci CA. Air Pollution and Myocardial Infarction in Rome: a case-crossover analysis. Epidemiology 2003;14:528-535. Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The Effect of Particulate Air Pollution on Emergency Admissions for Myocardial Infarction: a multicity case-crossover analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113:978-982.
  58. Ghio AJ, Kim C, Devlin RB. Concentrated Ambient Air Particles Induce Mild Pulmonary Inflammation in Healthy Human Volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162(3 Pt 1):981-988.
  59. Metzger KB, Tolbert PE, Klein M, Peel JL, Flanders WD, Todd K, Mulholland JA, Ryan PB, Frumkin H. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, 1993-2000. Epidemiology 2004; 15: 46-56.
  60. Tsai et al., 2003.
  61. Wellenius GA, Schwartz J, and Mittleman MA. Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure in Seven United States Cities. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97 (3):404-408. Wellenius GA, Bateson TF, Mittleman MA, Schwartz J. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Am J Epidem 2005; 161:1030-1036.
  62. Van Den Eeden SK, Quesenberry CP Jr, Shan J, Lurmann F. Particulate Air Pollution and Morbidity in the California Central Valley: a high particulate pollution region. Final Report to the California Air Resources Board, 2002.
  63. Lin M, Chen Y, Burnett RT, Villeneuve PJ, Kerwski D. The Influence of Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter on Asthma Hospitalization in Children: case-crossover and time-series analyses. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110:575-581.
  64. Norris G, YoungPong SN, Koenig JQ, Larson TV, Sheppard L, Stout JW. An Association Between Fine Particles and Asthma Emergency Department Visits for Children in Seattle. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107:489-493.
  65. Tolbert PE, Mulholland JA, MacIntosh DD, Xu F, Daniels D, Devine OJ, Carlin BP, Klein M, Dorley J, Butler AJ, Nordenberg DF, Frumkin H, Ryan PB, White MC. Air Quality and Pediatric Emergency Room Visits for Asthma in Atlanta, Georgia. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151:798-810.
  66. Slaughter JC, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Koenig JQ, Shapiro, GG. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Symptom Severity and Medication Use in Children with Asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003; 91:346-353.
  67. Thaller et al., 2008.
  68. Dockery DW, Pope CA III, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Ferris BG, Speizer FE. An Association Between Air Pollution and Mortality in Six U.S. Cities. N ENGL J MED 1993; 329:1753-1759. Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW. Particulate Air Pollution as a Predictor of Mortality in a Prospective Study of U.S. Adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151:669-674.
  69. Pope CA III. Epidemiology of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Human Health: biological mechanisms and who’s at risk? Environ Health Perspect 2000;108: 713-723.
  70. Lin S, Munsie JP, Hwang SA, Fitzgerald E, Cayo MR. Childhood Asthma Hospitalization and Residential Exposure to State Route Traffic. Environ Res 2002; 88:73-81.
  71. Gauderman WJ, Vora H, McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland GF, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Avol E, Küenzli N, Jarrett M, Peters J. Effect of Exposure to Traffic on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age: a cohort study. Lancet 2007; 369:571-577.
  72. Gauderman WJ, Gilliland GF, Vora H, Avol E, Stram D, McConnell R, Thomas D, Lurmann F, Margolis HG, Rappaport EB, Berhane K, Peters JM. Association between Air Pollution and Lung Function Growth in Southern California Children: results from a second cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;166:76-84.
  73. Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Gilliland F, Vora H, Thomas D, Berhane K, McConnell R, Kuenzli N, Lurmann F, Rappaport E, Margolis H, Bates D, Peters J. The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1057-1067.
  74. Churg, A Brauer, M, Avila-Casado, MdC, Fortoul TI, Wright JL. Chronic Exposure to High Levels of Particulate Air Pollution and Small Airway Remodeling. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111: 714-718.
  75. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, Thurston GD. Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution, JAMA 2002; 287(9):1132-1141.
  76. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thurston GD, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Godleski JJ. Cardiovascular Mortality and Year-round Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation 2004; 109:71-77.
  77. Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Shepard L, Shepherd K, Sullivan JH, Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in Women. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 447-458.
  78. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter, December 2009. EPA 600/R-08/139F. Available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=216546.
  79. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment, 2009.
  80. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment, 2009.
  81. U.S. EPA. Integrated Science Assessment, 2009.
  82. Dietert RR, Etzel RA, Chen D, et al. Workshop to Identify Critical Windows of Exposure for Children’s Health: immune and respiratory systems workgroup summary. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108 (supp 3); 483-490.
  83. World Health Organization: The Effects of Air Pollution on Children’s Health and Development: a review of the evidence E86575. 2005. Available at http://www.euro.who.int/document/E86575.pdf.
  84. WHO, 2005.
  85. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health, Ambient Air Pollution: health hazards to children. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 1699-1707. Statement was reaffirmed in 2010.
  86. American Academy of Pediatrics, 2004.
  87. Gauderman et al., 2004.
  88. Galizia A, Kinney PL. Year-round Residence in Areas of High Ozone: association with respiratory health in a nationwide sample of nonsmoking young adults. Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107:675-679.
  89. Peters JM, Avol E, Gauderman WJ, Linn WS, Navidi W, London SJ, Margolis H, Rappaport E, Vora H, Gong H, Thomas DC. A Study of Twelve Southern California Communities with Differing Levels and Types of Air Pollution. II. Effects on Pulmonary Function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 159:768-775.
  90. Sugiri D, Ranft U, Schikowski T, Krämer U. The Influence of Large Scale Airborne Particle Decline and Traffic Related Exposure on Children’s Lung Function. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114: 282-288.
  91. Bayer-Oglesby L, Grize L, Gassner M, Takken-Sahli K, Sennhauser FH, Neu U, Schindler C, Braun-Fahrländer C. Decline of Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113:1632-1637.
  92. Institute of Medicine. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999; O’Neill MS, Jerrett M, Kawachi I, Levy JI, Cohen AJ, Gouveia N, Wilkinson P, Fletcher T, Cifuentes L, Schwartz J et al. Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods. Environ Health Perspect 2003: 111: 1861-1870; Finkelstein MM; Jerrett M; DeLuca P; Finkelstein N; Verma DK; Chapman K; Sears MR. (2003). Relation Between Income, Air Pollution And Mortality: A Cohort Study. CMAJ 169: 397-402; Ostro B, Broadwin R, Green S, Feng W, Lipsett M. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in Nine California Counties: Results from CALFINE. Environ Health Perspect 2005: 114: 29-33; Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics. Occup Environ Med, 2006: 62: 718-725.
  93. American Lung Association. Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities: A Workshop Report. Environ Health Perspect 2001: 109(suppl 3): 357-374.
  94. Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Individual-Level Modifiers of the Effects of Particulate Matter on Daily Mortality. Am J Epidemiol 2006: 163: 849-859.
  95. Ostro B, Broadwin R, Green S, Feng WY, Lipsett M. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE. Environ Health Perspect 2006: 114: 29-33; Ostro B, Feng WY, Broadwin R, Malig B, Green S, Lipsett M. The Impact of Components of Fine Particulate Matter on Cardiovascular Mortality in Susceptible Subpopulations. Occup Environ Med 2008; 65(11):750-6.
  96. Bell et al., 2008.
  97. Apelberg BJ, Buckley TJ, White RH. Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in Maryland. Environ Health Perspect 2005: 113:693-699.
  98. Zeger SL, Dominici F, McDermott A, Samet J. Mortality in the Medicare Population and Chronic Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Urban Centers (2000-2005). Environ Health Perspect 2008: 116:1614-1619.
  99. Bell et al., 2008.
  100. Babin S, Burkom H, Holtry R, Tabernero N, Davies-Cole J, Stokes L, Dehaan K, Lee D. Medicaid Patient Asthma-Related Acute Care Visits And Their Associations with Ozone and Particulates in Washington, DC, from 1994-2005. Int J Environ Health Res 2008; 18(3)209-221.
  101. Laurent O, Pedrono G, Segala C, Filleul L, Havard S, Deguen S, Schillinger C, Rivière E, Bard D. Air pollution, asthma attacks, and socioeconomic deprivation: a small-area case-crossover study. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 168:58-65; Laurent O, Pedrono G, Filleul L, Segala C, Lefranc A, Schillinger C, Riviere E, Bard D. Influence of Socioeconomic Deprivation on the Relation Between Air Pollution and Beta-Agonist Sales for Asthma. Chest 2009; 135(3):717-716.
  102. O’Neill et al., 2003.
  103. Health Effects Institute, 2010.
  104. Andersen et al., 2011.
  105. Finklestein MM, Jerrett M., Sears M.R. Traffic Air Pollution and Mortality Rate Advancement Periods. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 160:173-177; Hoek G, Brunkreef B, Goldbohn S, Fischer P, van den Brandt. Associations between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. Lancet 2002; 360:1203-1209.
  106. Peters A, von Klot S, Heier M, Trentinaglia I, Cyrys J, Hormann A, Hauptmann M, Wichmann HE, Lowel H. Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med 2004; 351:1721-1730.
  107. Suglia SF, Gryparis A, Schwartz J, and Wright RJ. Association between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and Lung Function among Urban Women. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116(10)1333-1337.

FACT: Air pollution hovers at unhealthy levels in almost every major city, threatening people’s ability to breathe and placing lives at risk.

Help us Fight For Air! | See more facts »